Prokaryotic Cell


Definition
  • Prokaryotes are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelles. They are abundant in the air, water, soil, and on most objects.

Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Very small, and much simpler than Eukaryotes.
  • Do not posses nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi apparatus, or endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Feature three major shapes: rod, spherical, and spiral.
  • Can move by gliding along surfaces or swimming through liquids

Functions
  • Prokaryotic cells carry out every activity associated with living things, such as growing, reproducing, and responding to the environment
  • Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, serve as decomposers, agents of fermentation, and play an important role in our own digestive system. Also, bacteria are involved in many nutrient cycles such as the nitrogen cycle, which restores nitrate into the soil for plants.

Reproduction
  • Prokaryotic cells divide by the process of binary fission. The binary fission involves division of cell, and formation of two identical halves which then separate into two prokaryotic cells.

Differences Betweeen Eukaryotes
  • Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, whereas Prokaryotes do not.
  • Eukaryotes are larger and much more complex than Prokaryotes.
  • Eukaryotic DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA is circular.
  • Prokaryotes are the most primitive, earliest form of life, whereas Eukaryotes are more complex, evolved organisms.



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By: Liz Whitaker